Indian language Alphabets

To learn Indian languages, first we learn the Indian language alphabets with their pronunciation in English and then learn the Indian language alphabets with words and their English pronunciation with images. Here we learn Tamil, Hindi, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, Bengali, Punjabi, Marathi, Gujarati and Nepali Alphabets / letters such as vowels and consonants in one place with their pronunciation in English.

Indian languages Alphabets

Indian languages

Tamil - தமிழ்

Tamil letters / Tamil alphabets are known as Tamil Eluthukkal (தமிழ் எழுத்துக்கள்). Tamil letters have 12 vowels ( Uyireluttu – உயிரெழுத்து) and 18 consonants (Meyyeluttu – மெய்யெழுத்து). These 12 vowels and 18 consonants combined to form 216 letters. It is called Uyirmey eluttu (உயிர்மெய் எழுத்து). It has one special letter called Aayutha ezhuthu (ஆய்த எழுத்து). Totally, 12+18+216+1=247 letters.

According to the nature of sound, Consonants are classified into three groups. They are Vallinam (வல்லினம்), Mellinam (மெல்லினம்) and Idayinam (இடையினம்). Letters with hard sound are called Vallinam. Letters with soft sound are called Mellinam. Letters with medium sound are called Idayinam.

Hindi - हिंदी

Hindi letters / Hindi alphabets are known as Hindi Varnamala (हिंदी वर्णमाला). Hindi letters have 13 vowels and 37 consonants. Hindi vowels are known as Hindi Swar (स्वर) and Hindi consonants are known as Hindi Vyanjan (व्यंजन).

Telugu - తెలుగు

Telugu letters / Telugu alphabets are known as Telugu Aksharaalu (తెలుగు అక్షరాలు). Telugu letters have 16 vowels and 36 consonants. Telugu vowels are known as Achchulu(అచ్చులు) and Telugu consonants are known as Hallulu(హల్లులు).

Malayalam - മലയാളം

Malayalam letters / Malayalam alphabets are known as Malayalam aksaramala (മലയാളം അക്ഷരമല). Malayalam letters have 15 vowels and 36 consonants. Malayalam vowels are known as swaram (സ്വരങ്ങൾ) and Malayalam consonants are known as vyanjanam (വ്യഞ്ജനങ്ങൾ).

Kannada - ಕನ್ನಡ

Kannada letters / Kannada alphabets are known as Kannada Varnamalegalu (ಕನ್ನಡ ವರ್ಣಮಾಲೆಗಳು). Kannada alphabets are classified into three groups and it has 49 (13+2+34) letters.

• Swaragalu
• Yogavahagalu
• Vyanjanagalu

Kannada alphabets have 13 vowels and these vowels are known as Kannada Swaragalu (ಸ್ವರಗಳು). Kannada has 2 letters which are partly vowel and partly consonant. These 2 letters are known as Kannada Yogavahagalu (ಯೋಗವಾಹಗಳು). One of them is Anuswara and the other is Visarga.
Kannada alphabets have 34 consonants and these consonants are known as Kannada Vyanjanagalu (ವ್ಯಂಜನಗಳು). These consonants are classified into two groups.

• Structured Consonants
• Unstructured Consonants

Structured Consonants has 25 letters and is known as Vargeeya Vyanjanagalu (ವರ್ಗೀಯ ವ್ಯಂಜನಗಳು). Unstructured Consonants has 9 letters and is known as Avargeeya Vyanjanagalu (ಅವರ್ಗೀಯ ವ್ಯಂಜನಗಳು).

Bengali - বেঙ্গালি

Bengali letters / Bengali alphabets are known as Bengali Barnamala ( বেঙ্গালি বর্ণমালা ) or Bangla Bornomala (বাংলা বর্ণমালা). It has 50 (11+39) letters. Bengali alphabets have 11 vowels and these vowels are known as Shorborno (স্বরবর্ণ). Bengali alphabets have 39 consonants and these consonants are known as Benjonborno (ব্যঞ্জনবর্ণ).

Punjabi - ਪੰਜਾਬੀ

Punjabi letters / Punjabi alphabets are known as Punjabi Varnamala (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਵਰਣਮਾਲਾ). Based on the Indic script, Punjabi alphabets are called Gurmukhi Alphabets and based on Arabic script, Punjabi alphabets are called Shahmukhi Alphabets. Punjabi has 40 letters. Punjabi Alphabets have 10 vowels and 30 consonants. Punjabi vowels are known as Punjabi Swar and Punjabi consonants are known as Punjabi Vyanjan.

Marathi - मराठी

Marathi letters / Marathi alphabets are known as Marathi Mulakshare (मराठी मुळाक्षरे) / Marathi Varnamala (मराठी वर्णमाला) / Marathi Aksharmala (मराठी अक्षरमाला). Marathi letters have 15 vowels and 36 consonants. Marathi vowels are known as Marathi Swar (मराठी स्वर) and Marathi consonants are known as Marathi Vyanjan (मराठी व्यंजन).

Gujarati - ગુજરાતી

Gujarati Letters / Gujarati Alphabets are known as Gujarati Mulakshar (ગુજરાતી મૂળાક્ષર) / Gujarati Kakko (ગુજરાતી કક્કો) / Gujarati Varnamala. Gujarati Alphabets has 15 vowels and 34 consonants. Gujarati vowels are known as Gujarati Swar (ગુજરાતી સ્વર) and Gujarati consonants are known as Gujarati Vyanjan (ગુજરાતી વ્યંજન).

Nepali - नेपाली

Nepali letters / Nepali alphabets are known as Nepali Barnamala (नेपाली बर्णमाला) / Nepali Varnamala (नेपाली वर्णमाला). Nepali letters have 13 vowels and 37 consonants. Nepali vowels are known as Nepali Swar Barna (नेपाली स्वर बर्न)and Nepali consonants are known as Nepali Byanjan Barna (नेपाली ब्यानजन बर्ना).

Vowels and Consonants

Here we learn Tamil, Hindi, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, Bengali, Punjabi, Marathi, Gujarati and Nepali vowels and consonants and their pronunciation in English.

VOWELS

TAM

HIN

TEL

MAL

KAN

BEN

PUN

MAR

GUJ

NEP

a

a

a

a

a

oo

a

a

a

a

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

i

e

i

i

i

e

i

i

i

e

ii

ee

ee

ii

ii

ii

ii

ii

ii

ee

u

u

u

u

u

ou

u

u

u

u

uu

uu

oo

uu

uu

uu

uu

uu

uu

uu

ae

ru

ru

r

ru

re

e

ru

e

ru

aee

ye

roo

e

e

aa

ai

e

ai

ye

ai

i

e

ee

ee

oi

o

ai

o

i

o

oo

ae

ai

ai

o

au

o

au

oo

oo

aow

ai

o

o

au

au

અં

am

aow

auw

अं

an

o

oo

oo

अं

am

:

ah

अं

an

अः

aha

oa

au

au

अः

ah

ru

अः

aha

au

ആം

am

ae

ae

అం

am

:

a:

oh

oh

అః

ah

CONSONANTS

TAM

HIN

TEL

MAL

KAN

BEN

PUN

MAR

GUJ

NEP

க்

ik

ka

ka

ka

ka

ko

ka

ka

ka

ka

ங்

ng

Kha

kha

kha

kha

kho

kha

kha

kha

Kha

ச்

ch

Ga

ga

ga

ga

gp

ga

गं

ga

ga

Ga

ஞ்

eng

Gha

gha

gha

gha

gho

gha

gha

gha

Gha

ட்

it

nga

Gna

nga

na

ingo

na

nga

nna

nga

ண்

inn

cha

cha

ca

ca

cho

ca

ca

cha

cha

த்

ith

chha

Cha

cha

cha

so

cha

cha

chha

chha

ந்

inth

ja

ja

ja

ja

jo

ja

ja

ja

ja

ப்

ip

jha

jha

jha

jha

ingo

jha

jha

jha

jha

ம்

im

nja

ini

nya

na

iyo

na

nja

naa

nja

ய்

iy

Ta

Ta

tta

ta

tho

ta

Ta

Ta

Ta

ர்

ir

Tha

Tha

ttha

tha

to

tha

Tha

Tha

Tha

ல்

il

Da

Da

dda

da

dho

da

Da

Da

Da

வ்

iv

Dha

Dha

ddha

dha

do

dha

Dha

Dha

Dha

ழ்

izh

Na

Na

nna

na

no

na

na

hna

Na

ள்

izhl

ta

ta

ta

ta

toh

ta

ta

ta

ta

ற்

ir

tha

tha

tha

tha

tho

tha

tha

tha

tha

ன்

in

da

da

da

da

doh

da

da

da

da

dha

dha

dha

dha

dho

dha

dha

dha

dha

na

na

na

na

kno

na

na

na

na

pa

pa

pa

pa

po

ba

pa

pa

pa

pha

pha

pha

pha

fo

bha

pha

pha

pha

ba

ba

ba

ba

bo

pa

ba

ba

ba

bha

bha

bha

bha

vho

pha

bha

bha

bha

ma

ma

ma

ma

mo

ma

ma

ma

ma

ya

ya

ya

ya

jo

ya

ya

ya

ya

ra

ra

ra

ra

ro

ra

ra

ra

ra

la

la

rra

la

lo

la

la

la

la

wa

va

la

va

sho

va

va

lla

wa

sha

sa

lla

saa

sha

ra

sha

va

sha

shha

Sa

llla

sha

soo

shha

ssa

shha

sa

sha

va

sa

ho

sa

sha

sa

ha

ha

sha

ha

ড়

ro

ha

sa

ha

क्ष

ksh

La

ssa

lla

ঢ়

rho

la

ha

क्ष

ksh

त्र

tra

క్ష

ksha

sa

য়

yo

क्ष

ksha

त्र

tra

ज्ञ

gya

Ra

ha

to

ज्ञ

jnya

ज्ञ

gya

श्र

sra

am

श्र

sra

ah

amh

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